ENGLISH—UNIT 3

VERBS

 

LESSON 11

 

*Every sentence has a subject and a predicate.  The verb is the main word in the predicate.  Often the verb is a word that shows action.  An action verb tells what the subject does or did.

 

1.  The skier zooms quickly down the slope.

2.  Her blue skis flashed in the sunlight.

 

 

 

 

LESSON 12

 

*A verb in the present tense tells about an action that happens now or happens often.  A present tense verb must agree with the subject of the sentence.

 

*When the subject is a singular noun or he, she, or it, add –s

to the verb.

 

1.  A fire spreads quickly in a home.

2.  It leaps quickly from room to room.

 

*When the subject is a plural noun or I, we, you, or they, do not add –s.

 

1.  Firefighters save many lives.

2.  They protect property, also.

 

 

                                   

 

LESSON 13

 

More Present-Tense Verbs

 

*For verbs that end in ss, ch, sh, zz, or x:

 

1.  Add –es when the subject is a singular noun or he, she, or it.

Kirsten watches the seed grow.

She watches the seed grow.

 

2.  Do not add –es when the subject is a plural noun or I, we, you, or they.

The students watch the seeds grow.

They watch the seeds grow.

 

*For verbs that end in a consonant and y:

 

1.  Change y to i and add –es when the subject is a singular noun or he, she, or it.

A robin flies to the evergreen tree.  (fly)

It hurries to get to its nest.   (hurry)

 

2.  Do not change y to i or add –es when the subject is a plural noun or I, we, you, or they.

Robins fly to the evergreen tree.

They hurry to their nests.

 

 

 

 

LESSON 14

 

*A verb in the past tense tells about an action that already happened.

 

* Follow these rules to form the past tense.

 

1.  Add –ed to most verbs.     help~helped

 

2.  If a verb ends in e, drop the e and add –ed.     vote~voted

 

3.  If a verb ends in a consonant and y, change the y to i

and add –ed.     hurry~hurried

 

4.  For most verbs that end in one vowel and one consonant, and are usually one syllable, double the consonant and add –ed.

stop~stopped

 

 

 

 

LESSON 15

 

*A verb in the future tense tells about an action that will happen.  The action has not yet occurred.  Use the special verb will to form the future tense.

 

PRESENT

Mrs. Scott studies the lesson plans.

PAST

Mrs. Scott studied the lesson plans.

FUTURE

Mrs. Scott will study the lesson plans.

 

 

 

 

LESSON 16

 

*A linking verb links the subject of a sentence with other words that tell about the subject.  A linking verb does not show action.  Different forms of the verb be are often used as linking verbs.  Use the form of be that agrees with the subject of the sentence.

 

 

 

 

 

FORMS OF BE

 

 

SUBJECT

PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

 

singular noun

he, she, it

 

 

is

 

was

 

plural noun

you, we, they

 

 

are

 

were

 

I

 

 

am

 

was

 

 

 

 

LESSON 17

 

*A verb can be more than one word.  In this kind of verb, the most important word is the main verb.  The helping verb works with the main verb to tell when the action happened.  The helping verb always comes before the main verb.     (helping verb + main verb)

The movie makers have unpacked their equipment.

 

COMMON HELPING VERBS

am      was       has

  is       were       have

are       will       had

 

 

 

 

LESSON 18

 

*The past tense is often formed by adding –ed to a verb.  Another way to show a past action is to use the helping verbs has, have, or had with the past-tense form of the main verb.  Be sure to use the helping verb that agrees with the subject of the sentence.

 

Our fourth grade class has published a class newspaper.

Our students have worked hard on it.

We had studied newspapers in Social Studies.

 

SUBJECT

PRESENT

PAST

 

singular noun

he, she, it

 

 

has

 

had

 

plural noun

I, you, we, they

 

 

have

 

had

 

 

 

 

LESSON 19

 

*Irregular verbs do not add –ed to show the past tense.  Instead, the spelling of an irregular verb changes to form the past tense.  The spelling of many irregular verbs changes again when they are used with the helping verbs has, have, or had.

 

I begin to read The Castle in the Attic.

I began to read The Castle in the Attic.

I have begun to read The Castle in the Attic.

 

 

PRESENT

PAST

PAST with HAS, HAVE, or HAD

begin

began

begun

bring

brought

brought

come

came

come

do

did

done

eat

ate

eaten

give

gave

given

grow

grew

grown

make

made

made

say

said

said

swim

swam

swum

 

 

 

 

LESSON 20

 

MORE IRREGULAR VERBS

 

PRESENT

PAST

PAST with HAS, HAVE, or HAD

break

broke

broken

draw

drew

drawn

drive

drove

driven

fly

flew

flown

ride

rode

ridden

sing

sang

sung

take

took

taken

tell

told

told

throw

threw

thrown

write

wrote

written

 

 

 

 

LESSON 21

 

*A contraction is made by joining two words together.  An  apostrophe ( ‘ ) takes the place of any letters that are left out.  Some contractions are formed by joining a verb with the word not.  Notice that the spelling of the verb will changes when it is combined with not to form the contraction won’t.

 

CONTRACTIONS WITH NOT

is not          isn’t

do not          don’t

are not          aren’t

does not          doesn’t

was not          wasn’t

did not          didn’t

were not          weren’t

cannot          can’t

has not          hasn’t

could not          couldn’t

have not          haven’t

should not          shouldn’t

had not          hadn’t

would not          wouldn’t

will not          won’t

 

 

 

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